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Amakuru Hanze Politike Umutekano

Afghanistan: Amateka y’Abatalibani bagiye kuyobora Igihugu nyuma y’imyaka 20 barameneshejwe.

Ubusanzwe, ijambo “talibani” risobanuye ngo “umunyeshuri”, cyangwa se umuntu ushakisha ubumenyi. Abatalibani bategetse Afuganisitani kuva mu 1996 kugeza mu 2001 aho bashyizeho ubutegetsi bugendera ku mahame akarishye y’idini ya Isilamu azwi nka shariya.

Abatalibani batangiye bate?

Abatalibani bari mu matsinda yarwanaga mu ntambara yashyamiranyije abanyagihugu muri Afuganistani mu myaka ya za 1990, nyuma y’aho Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti ziviriye muri icyo Gihugu.

Iryo tsinda ryavutse mu 1994 hafi y’Umujyi wa Kandahar, mu majyepfo y’Afuganistani. Uwarishinze yitwaga Mollah Mohammad Omar, wari umukuru cyangwa se Imam w’aba Isilamu bo muri uwo mujyi. Uyu ni nawe wakomeje kuribera umuyobozi kugeza aho apfiriye mu 2013.

Abatalibani bahuriye hehe na Amerika?

Mu ntangiriro, abatalibani binjizaga abarwanyi babakuye mu bahoze ari indwanyi z’abanyafuganistani bo mu mutwe w’aba moudjahidine, bari bashyigikiwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika mu ntambara bahanganagamo n’ingabo z’abasoviyeti mu myaka y’1980.

Abatalibani bafashe ubutegetsi bate?

Nyuma y’igenda ry’ingabo z’Abasoviyeti mu 1989 n’isenyuka rya leta yariho muri Afuganistani ryakurikiyeho, Igihugu cyashegeshwe n’intambara yashyamiranyije abanyagihugu. Abatalibani baje gushyigikirwa cyane ubwo bizezaga ko bagiye kugarura ibintu mu buryo no kugarura ubutabera. Mu 1994, babashije kwigarurira umujyi wa Kandahar nta mirwano ikomeye ibaye, hanyuma mu 1996, bigarurira umurwa mukuru Kaboul.

Ingengabitekerezo yabo ni iyihe?

Abatalibani bategeka bagendeye ku mahame akarishye y’idini ya Isilamu-Charia. Mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwabo, kwicira abantu mu ruhame no kuhabakubitira byari byiganje. Abagore muri rusange ntibagiraga uburenganzira bwo kujya mu mirimo cyangwa se kwiga, kandi bari bategetswe kwambara umwitandiro uhisha igice cyose cy’isura uzwi nka burqa igihe cyose bari mu ruhame.

Abatalibani baciye ibitabo ndetse na filimi zo mu bihugu byo mu burengerazuba bw’Isi (Uburayi na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika), ndetse basenya ibintu byose bijyanye n’imico gakondo, harimo ibibumbano binini bya Bouddha byari bimaze imyaka igera ku 1,500 mu kibaya kiri rwagati mu Gihugu cya Bamiyan.

Bahuriye hehe na Al Qaida?

Abatalibani baje gucumbikira umutwe w’iterabwoba wa Al-Qaida, wategekwaga icyo gihe n’umunya Arabiya Sawudite Oussama Ben Laden, ubu utakiriho nyuma yo guhigwa bukware na Amerika ndetse zikaza no kumuhitana. Al-Qaida yashinze ibigo byo gutorezamo abarwanyi muri Afuganistani, ari nabyo yifashishije mu gutegura ibitero by’iterabwoba mu Isi yose, harimo n’ibitero byo kuwa 11 Nzeri 2001 byibasiye Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Batakaje bate ubutegetsi?

Nyuma y’igihe kitageze ku kwezi habaye ibitero byo kuwa 11 Nzeri 2001, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika n’inshuti zayo bateye Afuganistani hari ku butegetsi bwa George W. Bush. Nyuma yo guhirika abatalibani, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika yatangiye gukorana n’abanya Afuganistani mu kugarura Leta bise ko igendera ku mahame ya demukarasi.

Nyuma hakurikiyeho iki?

Nyuma y’aho batsindiwe, abakuru b’abatalibani bahunze bagana mu birindiro byo mu majyepfo no mu burasirazuba bw’Afuganistani, abandi bahungira muri Pakistani. Uyu mutwe wakomeje kugaba ibitero kuri Leta nshya yari ishyigikiwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Mu 2020, Leta ya Amerika yari iyobowe na Donald Trump yagiranye ibiganiro bigamije amasezerano n’abatalibani bari bamaze imyaka irenga 20 mu ntambara muri Afuganistani.

Ayo masezerano yashyiragaho ingengabihe yo gucyura ingabo za Amerika hanyuma abatalibani nabo bagahagarika ibitero ku banyamerika, bakanatangira kugirana ibiganiro na Leta ya Afuganistani. Hagati aho, ibiganiro byamaze amezi hagati y’abatalibani na Leta ya Afuganistani ntibyashoboye kugeza ku masezerano y’amahoro.

Ni ibihe bihugu byemeye Abatalibani?

Leta zibarirwa ku ntoki zirimo Pakistani, Emira Ziyunze z’Abarabu na Arabiya Sawudite ni zo zemeraga ubutegetsi bw’abatalibani ubwo bategekaga kuva mu 1996 kugeza mu 2001.

Ubu nabwo rero ntabwo bizwi neza niba ibihugu byinshi bizemera leta nshya y’abatalibani: icyakora, minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Bwana Antony Blinken, mu kwezi gushize yatangaje ko Afuganistani izashyirwa mu kato niba abatalibani bafashe ubutegetsi ku ngufu kandi bagakora amahano.

Aba batalibani bafashe ubutegetsi ku cyumweru tariki 15 Kanama 2021, nyuma yo kwinjira mu murwa mukuru Kabul nta mirwano ibaye kuko inzego z’umutekano zari zataye ibirindiro ndetse n’abayobozi bakuru b’Igihugu bamaze guhunga.

VOA

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